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Updated 13 March 2010

Habitat – The sum of environmental conditions in a specific place that is occupied by an organism, population or community.

HACCP – hazard analysis and critical control points

Hairline – A .25-point rule.

Halo Effect – Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.

Halftone – The printed reproduction of a photograph, painting or other art subject whose varying tone values are derived from different sized, closely spaced dots of ink transferred from engravings, plates or cylinders into which the original image has been made photographically through a fine mesh screen pattern. Such reproductions are generally made in conjunction with letterpress, offset and gravure printing, and to a lesser extent flexography.

Halftone-Bodied Ink – Inks that are soft and thin enough to print halftones without filling-in between the dots and solids without picking.

Halftone Engraving – A metal or plastic plate from which the tone values of halftone reproduction are obtained during the printing operation. While the term may be used alone it is usually prefaced by another word to indicate the material from which it is made; such as copper, zinc, magnesium or plastic.

Halftone Gravure – Term applied to all the steps in the process of producing gravure cylinders from pre-screened film material, using screens commonly used in offset reproduction.

Halftone Negative – (or Positive) The exposed photographic film or glass onto which the tone values of a subject are converted through a halftone screen. The negative or positive image is transferred in the succeeding steps toward the preparation of a halftone film for plate/cylinder preparation.

Halftone Screen – (1) A screen comprised of two perpendicular pieces of glass, each with a fine pattern of parallel lines, creating a grid that breaks up transmitted light into a fine dot pattern. (2) An identical screened pattern created electronically from a scanned original.

HALS – Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers, a group of additives having a common chemical structure (a pipe ridine ring) as part of their molecule. These highly effective UV stabilizers protect the polymer by scavenging free radicals.

Handshake – A communication format published by Scitex for outside software developers to use in transmitting files to Scitex systems.

HAPsee Hazardous Air Pollutant.

HAP Applied – The organic HAP content of all inks, coatings, varnishes, adhesives, primers, solvent, and other materials applied to a substrate by a product and packaging rotogravure or wide-web flexographic printing affected source.

HAP Used – The organic HAP applied by a publication rotogravure printing affected source, including all organic HAP used for cleaning, parts washing, proof presses, and all organic HAP emitted during tank loading, ink mixing, and storage.

Hard Chromium – Chromium plated for engineering rather than decorative applications. Not necessarily harder than decorative chromium. Gravure applications are hard chromium.

Hardcopy – A printed-paper copy of output in readable form. It is also a transparency film or photograph of an image displayed on the monitor.

Hard Proof – The physical output, either prepress or printed, of an image, which can be viewed without a monitor or electronic system.

Hard pulp – Chemical pulp with a high lignin content

Hard-SizedSee Sizing.

Hardwood chemical pulp – Chemical pulp made from hardwood

Hardwoods – These are typically deciduous trees, such as birch, aspen and maple, that can be used to produce hardwood pulp

Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) – Toxic air pollutants, also known as HAPs, are those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental effects. U.S. EPA is working with state, local, and tribal governments to reduce air toxics releases of 188 pollutants to the environment. Examples of toxic air pollutants include benzene, which is found in gasoline; perchlorethlyene, which is emitted from some dry cleaning facilities; and methylene chloride, which is used as a solvent and paint stripper by a number of industries. Examples of other listed air toxics include dioxin, asbestos, toluene, and metals such as cadmium, mercury, chromium, and lead compounds. U.S. EPA specifies Method 311 in the Printing and Publishing MACT standard for determination of hazardous air pollutants in publication rotogravure and wide web flexographic ink systems. (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/allabout.html)

Hazardous Waste – Hazardous waste is a waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludges. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides. (http://www.epa.gov/osw/hazwaste.htm)

Haze – (1) An unwanted printed ink film resulting from the doctor blade failing to wipe fully in the non-image areas of the cylinder. (2) An appearance of slight milkiness in a transparent film or a liquid solution.

H-Dimension – (1.) The height of the bottle finish, measured from the sealing surface, in a line parallel to the axis of the finish and tangent to the threads on the finish, down to a point where the line intersects the body (shoulder) of the container. (2.) The inside height of the closure, measured from the bottom of the closure, in a line tangent to the thread of the closure and terminating at the inside, top of closure.

HDPE – High density, (0.95-0.965) polyethylene. Has much higher stiffness, higher temperature resistance and much better water vapour barrier properties than LDPE, but it is considerably hazier.

Headspace analyser – Quality control instrument for determining the gas composition in the headspace.

Headspace – The space between the level of the contents in the neck of a container and the closure. It is intended to furnish room for expansion of product due to heat or other action after packing.

Heat’n Hold

Heat of Evaporation – The amount of heat required to transform a substance from its liquid state to a gaseous state.

Heat Seal – The uniting of two or more surfaces by the fusion of coatings or base materials under controlled conditions of temperature, pressure and time (dwell).

Heat-sealable film – Film that may be joined to itself or another substrate through the use of heat and pressure (without the use of adhesives).

Heat Seal Coatings – Materials applied to board, in a liquid form, and dried which may be reactivated by heating to about 225° to 250° F.

Heat-sealing – Joining together by using heat and pressure.

Heat-sealing adhesive – An adhesive coating previously applied that forms a bond between two surfaces when heat and pressure is applied.

Heat-seal Layer – A heat-sealable innermost layer in plastic packaging films and laminates. Can be either adhesive laminated or extrusion coated onto a non-sealable film (or foil).

Heat-seal Strength – Strength of heat-seal measured after the seal is cooled, (not to be confused with “hot tack”).

Heat-Set Inks – The solvents evaporate rapidly when subjected to heat. Special equipment is required for their use, such as heater units, exhaust system and chill rolls. They are adaptable to both letterpress and offset use.

Heat-Set Web – Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.

Heat shrinking – Application of heat to shrink a band of plastics material around product.

Heat-Tek bottle

Heat-transfer Paper – The substrate used in thermal transfer printing. The design is first printed on it with inks containing sublimable dispersed dyes. Next, under applied heat and pressure, the first substrate is placed in contact with another substrate to which the design adheres.

Heavy-Bodied Inks – Inks of a high viscosity or stiff consistency.

Heliogravure – Obsolete term used to describe any gravure printing produced from a photo-engraving.

HelioKlischograph – The name of the first electromechanical cylinder-engraving machine, developed by the Hell Company.

Hemicellulose – A less stable form of cellulose; dissolves in dilute alkalis and reactant with weak acids.

Hexachrome – A proprietary colour separation process, developed by Pantone that uses six process colours (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black, Orange, and Green).

HFFS – Horizontal Form Fill & Seal packaging machine.

Hibrite – A grade of Roto News, equivalent to Type B.

Hiccup – A form of efflux cup viscometer.

Hickey – Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.

Hi-Fi paper – (High finish paper) Machine-calandered newsprint.

HiFi Printing – Process printing that expands the conventional four-colour process gamut using additional special ink colours.

High-Bulk Paper – A paper made thicker than its standard basis weight.

High-Fidelity Colour – Colour reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations, as compared to four-colour process.

High Key – (1) An image that mainly consists of highlights and midtones. (2) Term used to describe photographs in which the majority of tones are lighter in value than a middle grey.

Highlight – Lighter-toned areas of a photograph, where there is meant to be little or no ink in the reproduction. Highlights are the lightest part of a positive and the darkest part of a negative.

High Pressure Laminate (HPL) – Laminate pressed at pressures exceeding 750 psi (5 Mpa).

High Resolution – (Sometimes called “hi-res”) A type of image that is displayed in better quality by increasing the number of dots per inch (or pixels per inch) than normal. Can refer to high quality computer displays or printer output.

High-security hologram – otherwise known as Diffractive Optical Variable Device or DOVD

Hinged Cover – Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.

HLS – A colour model based on three coordinates: hue, lightness (or luminance) and saturation.

Holdout – The ability of an ink to leave sufficient pigment and binder on the surface of a material after drying to give good density of colour and/or gloss.

Holographic carton

Holographic films – There are laminates, which are generally polyester (PET) based, but sometimes polypropylene is also used. These films are glued – laminated – to board stock, typically SBS, which is then sheeted and sent to a converter for printing and die cutting into final packages. Additionally, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) is also used in some applications. This film can be holographically effective, but many laminators prefer to work with PET, as its web handling properties tend to be more consistent. The end result though can be achieved with either film type.

Holographic Packaging

Holographic pattern – Within the holographic film “idea” world, there are three areas that are often considered when designing a package – standard holographic patterns, custom patterns and Rainbow. Standard patterns are holographic patterns that are sold to any number of users. These patterns include Pillars of Light (a.k.a. Double Rainbow), or Shards (a.k.a. Cracked Ice), or Aurora (a.k.a. Sparkles), to name just a few. These patterns are commonly used on various products. They also tend to show up regularly on an assortment of promotional packaging. In addition to these holographic patterns, there are literally dozens of other less widely used stock patterns that can be selected to provide a different dimensional effect. The biggest and most versatile idea in the holographic packaging world is Rainbow, an un-patterned holographic grating which provides a bright and colorful overall background effect that works well with a wide variety of translucent inks. In the case of all holographic films, ink selection makes a package go from colorful and fun, to subdued or very sophisticated.

Holographic treatment

Holography – (1) An advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. Invented in 1948, the science of holography did not advance much until the 1960s, when the laser was introduced. In packaging, holograms are used for two purposes: promotion and security, with brand enhancement making up an estimated 90 percent of the market, according to Brad Long, business development manager, Brand Protection, for Kurz. (2) The method of producing a three dimensional image in foil or film utilizing interference patterns from a split laser beam.

Hologravure – Printing process by which great continuous 3D depth is achieved using textures and patterns.

HoloPRISM process

Hot-filling

Hot-Loc pads

Hot N Handy Pouch

Hot Roll/Belt Lamination – Hot roll and belt lamination use heat and pressure as their means of bonding. As shown below, the adhesive film and substrate are drawn onto heated rollers where the materials are heated and pressed together. The heat activates the adhesive film, creating a bond when pressed against the substrate material. Hot roll and belt lamination of adhesive films allow for continuous in-line lamination and an even distribution of adhesive. (source: http://www.dow.com/)

Hot screening – Pulp cleaning at elevated temperature using pressure screens.

Hot-Scuff Resistance – Resistance to abrasion or colour bleed of a print when it is subjected to hot irons used for package sealing.

Hot Stamping – A decorating process in which the desired image is transferred to a substrate by a heated, positive copy die. Images are normally limited to one colour positive copy line.

Hot Tack – Strength of heat seal measured before the seal is cooled, which is very important for high-speed packaging operations.

Hourglass shape

HPL See: High Pressure Laminate.

Rexam HP liquor_closureHP Liquor closure – Linerless tamper-evident closure ideal for distilled spirits.

HPP – High-Pressure Processing.

HSB (Hue Saturation Brightness) – In graphic arts, an abbreviation for all of a colour’s characteristics: hue (the pigment), saturation (the amount of pigment), and brightness (the amount of white included). With the HSB model, all colours can be defined by expressing their levels of hue, saturation and brightness in percentages.

HSL Image – A red, green, blue (RGB) image seen on a video monitor in 3 channels (hue, saturation, brightness), though only one channel is displayed at a time.

HSV – A colour model based on three coordinates: hue, saturation and value.

Hue – A gradation of colour.

Hue Error – The difference between the printed colour and the ideal colour that it is supposed to represent. For example, cyan ink used in four-colour process work should ideally reflect all the green and blue frequencies of light that fall on it, while it should absorb all of the red frequencies. In reality, the ink will not achieve this state of perfection.

Hull Cell – A trapezoidal box of non-conducting material with electrodes arranged to permit observation of cathodic or anodic effects over a wide range of current densities.

Hydrogen Embrittlement – Embrittlement of a metal or alloy caused by absorption of hydrogen during a pickling, cleaning or plating process.

Hydrometer – An instrument used for measuring the specific gravity of a liquid.

Hydrophilic – Water loving, the property of a chemical that is polar, and is soluble in water.

Hygienic tissue – Toilet tissue, facial wipes, paper towels and similar absorbent tissue products that disintegrate in water.

Hygroscopic – Fibres are hygroscopic as they change shape as a result of picking up or releasing moisture.

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