Updated 13 March 2010
E.coli 0157:H7 –
EAA – Ethylene acrylic acid copolymer. Because of its excellent adhesion to aluminium foil, it is mostly used for extrusion lamination of foil to other surfaces.
EAN – Originally: European Article Number and now used to denote International Article Number and the International Article Numbering Association.
EAN-13 – Full 13-digit version of the International Article Number.
EAN-8 – Short form, 8-digit version of the International Article Number.
EB – see European Bioplastics
Ecolean Group – An international company with headquarters, manufacturing and development in Sweden and manufacturing in China (for Asia and Pacific markets), Ecolean has commercial activities in 30 countries, the largest markets being China and Russia. The company develops and manufactures packaging systems for liquid foods as well as the packaging materials and filling machines associated with them. See also Calymer pouches. (www.ecolean.com)
EDG – see Electronic Dot Generation
Efflux Cup – A simple viscometer such as the Zahn, Shell or Hiccup; gauges viscosity readings rapidly in terms of the number of seconds required for the cup to empty through an orifice of known size.
Ektachrome – A colour transparency manufactured by Eastman Kodak, which, unlike Kodachrome can be processed by amateur and professional photographers.
Ektacolor – A colour negative used to colour correct reflection copy or transparencies. It has built-in correctors and when developed looks like a Kodacolor negative with complementary colours or dyes in place of black silver emulsion of ordinary negatives. A colour correct positive or Type C colour print can be made from this material by contact or camera projection.
Electrochemical Equivalent – The weight of an element, compound, radical, or ion involved in a specific electrochemical reaction during the passage of a unit quantity of electricity, such as Faraday, ampere hour, or coulomb.
Electrode – A plate or terminal through which electricity enters or leaves an electrolyte.
Electro-deposition – Electroplating. The process of depositing a substance upon an electrode by electrolysis.
Electrode Potential – The difference in potential between an electrode and the immediate adjacent electrolyte, referred to some standard electrode potential difference as zero. (1.) Static-The electrode potential measured when no current is flowing between the electrode and the electrolyte. (2.) Dynamic-The electrode potential measured when current is passing between the electrode and the electrolyte. (3.) Equilibrium-An electrode potential measured when the electrode and the electrolyte are in equilibrium with respect to a specified electrochemical reaction. (4.) Standard-An equilibrium electrode potential, measured or computed, for an electrode in contact with an electrolyte in which one or more specified ions have a specified ion activity.
Electrolyte – (1.) A conducting medium in which the flow of current is accompanied by the movement of matter. Most often an aqueous solution of acids, bases, or salts, but includes many other media such as fused salts, ionized gases, some solids, etc. (2.) A substance which, when dissolved in a solvent, usually water, produces a conducting medium.
Electrolyte Cell – A unit apparatus designed for carrying out an electrochemical reaction; includes a vessel, two or more electrodes, and one or more electrolytes. A plating tank and bath, plus its electrical and mechanical gear.
Electrolyte Cleaning – Cleaning in which the work is either anodic or cathodic in the cleaning solution.
Electromagnetic Spectrum – The band of electromagnetic waves that pass through the atmosphere, measurable by wavelength. Different wavelengths have different properties, but most are invisible-and some completely undetectable-to human beings. Only wavelengths that are between 380 and 720 nanometers are visible, producing light. Invisible waves outside the visible spectrum include gamma rays, x-rays, microwaves and radio waves.
Electromechanical Engraving – Electromechanical engraving is accomplished on a cutting machine that operates like a lathe, rather than with the traditional chemical etching processes of the past. Engraved cells produced by this method take on a slightly different shape, and the screen angles are accomplished in a different manner than those seen in chemical etching.
Electronic Dot Generation (EDG) – Refers to the process of forming halftone dots on film or paper with a series of multiple exposures from a light source, through multiple fibre optic channels in a raster format without the use of a contact screen.
Electronic Printing – Methods capable of producing images without the use of traditional printing processes. Often electrostatic or electro-photographic in nature.
Electrons – Constituents of all atoms and the most elementary charge of negative electricity.
Electro-photographic Printing – The technology used in copy machines and laser printers. An electrically charged drum is hit with small beams of light. Wherever the light hits, the drum loses its electrical charge. When toner is applied, it sticks to the non-charged parts of the drum. Paper is then pressed against the drum, and the toner adheres to the paper. The paper is then heated to “set” the toner.
Electroplating – The electro-deposition of an adherent metallic coating on an electrode for the purpose of securing a surface with properties or dimensions different from those of base metal.
Electrostatic Assist (ESA) – A method of applying a high-voltage, low-amperage charge to the gravure impression roll, which significantly improves ink transfer during printing to minimize print defects, such as skipping and snowflaking.
Electrostatic Printing – Printing process that uses a special paper that is charged by an electron beam. The tone sticks to the charged areas. Used in large-image plotters.
Element – A collection of atoms of one type that cannot be decomposed into any simpler units by chemical means.
Elliptical Dot – (Sometimes called a chain dot) An oval dot used in halftone screens that improves the gradation of middle-tones, and especially skin tones.
EMAP – Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere Packaging.
Emboss – Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief.
Emissive Object – An object that emits light. Usually some sort of chemical reaction, such as the burning gasses of the sun or the heated filament of a light bulb.
Emulsification – In lithography, a condition resulting from the mixing of excessive fountain solution with the ink.
Emulsion – A mixture of two or more immiscible (unmixable) materials, held together in homogeneous solution by the action of a third agent. The term “emulsifying agent” is applied to the material that is added to hold the emulsion.
Enamel – Coated paper exhibiting high gloss, sheen, or lustre.
Encapsulated PostScript file (EPS file) – Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands.
Energy Efficiency – In an electrochemical process, the product of the current efficiency by the voltage.
Enso bottles – FDA approved PET bottles that are not PLA (made of cornstarch) or oxo-degradable (in need of UV rays to break down). If these bottles end up in microbial landfills, the bottles will break down within 10 months into inert biomass and biogas through either an anaerobic (no oxygen, no light) or aerobic decomposition. The most recent tests conducted by North East Labs in Berlin, CT/USA, show that Enso Bottles will biodegrade in a compostable environment in 250 days. Although all PET bottles are organic in nature, the microbes, however, don’t recognize them as food. Plastic appears to be the last thing they are looking for to eat, which is why it takes 500 years or more to break down. Enso developed an organic additive that sits next to the PET chain and attracts microbial colonization. In short Enso is adding an ‘organic seasoning’ to the bottle so the microbes know the bottle is food. For this reason, these bottles maintain the same properties as traditional PET and can be intermingled with standard PET in recycling streams and programs. ENSO bottles are validated through third party ASTM (Associated Standards and Testing Materials) standard tests, an international standards organization. (www.ensobottles.com)
European Bioplastics – The European association representing the interests of the industry along the complete bioplastics’ value chain. Its members produce, refine and distribute bioplastics, plastics that are either biobased, biodegradable, or both. Today, around 75 companies are members of European Bioplastics. (www.european-bioplastics.org)
Euro-pallets – ISO-formats pallets – Optimum palletising is one of the retail requirements to be considered already when developing a package in order to reduce logistics and handling costs. On the picture illustrated, the various ISO- formats are shown. Packages with those outer dimensions can be piled on pallets without leaving any space. As basis serve the pallet dimensions 1/1 (800 x 1200 mm), ¼ (400 x 600 mm) as well as ½ (600 x 800 mm) – Chep-pallet.
Earthcycle Packaging Ltd –
EarthFirst PLA TDO –
EAS – electronic article surveillance
Eastar PETG copolyester 6763 – A glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate. A clear amorphous polymer. The modification is made by adding a second glycol, cyclohexanedimethanol, during the polymerization stages.
Eastman Chemical Co –
Easy Peel laminate – Certain kinds of laminate will open easier than other kinds, due to a slightly different chemical setup of the LLDPE.
EasySeal closure – Trademark of Rexam – Lined tamper-evident closure specifically designed for aseptic or hot, ambient, or cold temperature filling processes, such as non-pressurised beverages.
Easy Seal – Patented, extrusion coated paperboard is made specifically for fold-over blister card applications in the pharmaceutical market. Superb graphic reproduction, tamper evidence, and durable heat-sealing properties result in packages which are both beautiful and functional. With a larger surface area, the fold-over format is ideal for products that need to carry promotional messages, compliance information and graphic appeal. End uses: pharmaceutical (clinical trial, prescription, over-the-counter), personal care, cosmetics, hardware, and electronics.
Easy Seal Plus – Version of Easy Seal that offers better adhesion to a wide variety of films and foils for broader packaging applications, including PVC, PVDC-coated, PVC PET, and polystyrene. The only paperboard that seals consistently to Honeywell’s Aclar, a hard-to-seal barrier film used widely in pharmaceutical packaging. For end uses, see Easy Seal.
Easy-grib tabs –
Easy-open pull-tab –
Easy-open ring –
Easy-tear opening (clamshell) –
Ebitda – A company’s earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization – or a common measure of cash flow
EBM – Extrusion blow moulding technology.
ECF – Elemental chlorine free. Chemical pulp bleached using chlorine dioxide and/or other bleaching agents, without elemental chlorine
Eco friendly packaging –
Ecoflex – (TM) A biodegradable material from BASF that is made from petroleum, can be very clear, a very soft material, suitable for making films and bags.
ECTFE – Ethylen-Chlor-trie-fluor-ethylen Copolymer
Edge Crush Test – A test of the strength of cartons. It involves applying downward pressure to the top of a section of the carton to determine how much pressure, expressed in pounds per inch, is required to crush it. The STFI Test tests the individual components of corrugated cartons in a similar way.
EFB – empty fruit bunch
Effluent Guidelines – National standards based on the performance of treatment and control technologies, for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. Effluent guidelines are issued for categories of existing and new sources. (http://www.epa.gov/guide/)
E-Flute – Flute thickness of 1.5 mm. Is generally used for light applications such as Pizza Boxes, Mailers, Shoe boxes etc.
Elastic strength – The ability of paper or board to resist stress acting in the plane of the sample
Elasticity – (1) The ability of paperboard to stretch as it is bent around the axis of a corner, resulting in a clean fold, without cracking. (2) Ability to rebound back to its original state after being stretched. Opposite of extensibility.
Electrical resistivity – Resistivity characterises how a sheet of paper accepts and holds a charge. Since the electrostatic processes uses an electrical charge to form the print image, the electrical properties of the sheet are important to the overall imaging process.
Electron Beam Curing – An alternative protective coating curing technique to ultraviolet (UV) or more conventional heat drying of varnishes or lacquers.
Electronic Product Code (EPC) –
Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) – An air pollution control device that removes particles from a gas stream (smoke) after combustion occurs. The ESP electrically charges the particles, causing them to adhere to metal plates inside the precipitator, from which they can be retrieved for disposal.
Electrotypes – Duplicate printing plates made by the electrical deposition of copper or nickel over moulds pressed from original engravings or type. For maximum press life, electrotypes may be chrome plated. For economy, several small electrotypes may be moulded or soldered together to make a pattern plate from which actual duplicate printing plates are in turn produced.
Elliptical container –
Emboss – A die may be used to create an embossed area – a decorative area of the board which is raised above the level of the surrounding board – or a de-bossed area which is lowered beneath the level of the surrounding board. Embossing is produced with matching male and female dies in much the same way as a score and may be performed with a rotary or platen unit.
Embossing – (1) Raising the letters or areas of a design above the flat surface of carton blanks or paper sheets by means of pressure applied through the action of male and female dies on cutting and creasing presses. (2) Embossing done by means of engraved rollers on sheet and web fed converting equipment.
Embossing, Blind – The embossing of a design on unprinted paper or paperboard.
Embrace High Yield shrink film –
Emulsion coating – Coating of paper with an emulsion containing plastic or resin
EN 13432:2000 – European requirements for packaging recoverable through composting and biodegradation.
Encapsulated Aroma Release technology –
End Closure – A rigid metal, film, plastic or paper structure that is mechanically attached to the end of a package or laminated plastic film, foil or paper membrane heat sealed to the end of a rigid package.
Endothermic – A foaming agent’s chemistry causing heat to be absorbed when the gas is generated.
Energy recovery – To capture energy from waste through any of a variety of processes (e.g. burning). Many new technology incinerators are waste to energy recovery units.
Engineered Carriers – Paper- or plastic-based tubes and cores used as carriers for such products as textiles, film, paper, tape, metals and others. Generally highly engineered to allow take up of materials, such as those listed, at very high speeds.
Engraving – In the graphic arts and converting industries, this term is often used in referring to original photo engravings from which the actual printing plates are duplicated or produced.
Envelope – Within the SGP Partnership registration program, the envelope includes all the manufacturing support activities and includes the building, grounds, utilities, employee and other functions of an individual site.
Environmental Audit – An independent assessment of the current status of a party’s compliance with applicable environmental requirements or of a party’s environmental compliance policies, practices, and controls.
Environmental Impact – Any change to the environment, good or bad, that wholly or partially results from industrial/manufacturing activities, products or services.
Environmentally Sound Technologies – Techniques and technologies capable of reducing environmental damage through processes and materials that generate fewer potentially damaging substances, recover such substances from emissions prior to discharge, or utilize and recycle production residues. The assessment of these technologies should account for their interaction with the socio-economic and cultural conditions under which they are implemented.
Environmental Management System (EMS) – An EMS is a set of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase its operating efficiency. (http://epa.gov/ems)
Environmental Rigid Blister (ERB) – The ERB is widely accepted by large retail and club stores. This is a WalMart/Sam’s Club preferred package. Made from a combination of blister board, corrugated and recyclable plastic, the ERB is environmentally friendly because it reduces the amount of plastic used and is made with recyclable plastic. The ERB is cost-effective as it cuts down on plastic, eliminates the need for a paper insert, and is significantly lighter in weight, which saves money on transportation costs. There are limitless opportunities for creative design and marketing with the ERB – the blister board can be made in any size, shape, and colour.
EnviroTube – AVC’s EnviroTube utilizes one type of plastic for the entire package (usually RPET), eliminating cross-contamination of paper and plastic or of multiple types of plastic. This tube-like package concept features an attractive look with a clamshell or thermoformed tray suspended inside, almost as if it were floating within the package. The end caps are made from injection moulded or thermoformed plastic, which are moulded with slits in the centre to hold the internal tray or clamshell, which is also made from the same type of plastic, and keep it suspended within the tube-like package. The internal tray or clamshell will not need to be sealed because it will be secured inside a tube or box made from plastic sheet that is closed with the caps and secured with proprietary sealing techniques. Printing in up to 8 colours can be done directly on the tube portion or a printed plastic film can be laminated to the plastic. Windows can be opened anywhere for optimum product visibility. A printed paper insert that can be easily removed can be used instead of printing onto the tube. This package design is extremely environmental because although it is made entirely from plastic, it is made completely with one type of plastic and therefore, eliminates the problem of cross-contamination, which can negatively affect recycling efforts.
Enzyme bleaching – Bleaching technique in which cooked and oxygen-delignified chemical pulp is treated with enzymes prior to final bleaching. Allows pulp to be bleached without chlorine chemicals.
Eole III easy-open end –
EPC – Electronic Product Code.
Esobarr – Finish producers offer a combination of carton and three-layer polymers (High-Barrier-Layer Esobarr). The external carton is to suggest the packaging being entirely made of recycling carton. The consumer believes to help environment. He does not know that that compounds of carton and polymers are almost impossible to recycle. They are burned because a separation of the carton and the polymer layer would be too expensive. The arguments of the producer of the Carton-polymer packaging are a better protection against UV rays, a barrier of gas, flavour and humidity. (source:http://www.ourfood.com/Packaging.html).
ESP – Electrostatic precipitator
Etching – The process of making a design on a metal plate by a corrosive substance or by cutting it with a sharp tool.
ETFE – Ethylen-Tetrafluorethylen-copolymer.
European Bioplastics – http://www.european-bioplastics.org.
EVA – Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymer. Much softer and clearer than LDPE or LLDPE and has lower melt temperature. Its melt temperature goes down, while its softness increases with increasing vinyl acetate (VA) content. EVA resins with 2-18% VA content are used for cast and blown packaging films.
EVOH – Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol copolymer, used in co-extruded plastic films to improve oxygen barrier properties. It is, however, a poor water vapour barrier. Even its otherwise excellent OTR, (oxygen transmission rate) is sensitive to high humidity, therefore, for packaging applications, it is usually the core layer of co-extruded plastic films, where it is shielded from moisture by protective layers of polyethylene. Its OTR also depends on its VOH (vinyl alcohol) content. For rigid packages the EVOH film is placed between two layers of PET. This method is used for the production of bottles for beer in order to achieve the same properties of glass bottles. Losses of not more then 10% of CO in 6 month and a maximum of 1 ppm of oxygen are allowed for beer glass bottles. This material is also used as packaging for ketchup and mayonnaise.
Exothermic – A foaming agent’s chemistry causing heat to be generated when gases are released.
Expiry date – Expiry (Exp) Date Nov 2009 means do not use this product after November 2009.
Extended cooking – Method of cooking pulp to low lignin content, thereby reducing the need for bleaching chemicals
Extensibility – Ability to be stretched without breaking. Opposite of elasticity.
Extreme-E – A high resolution engraving method utilizing a machine that can engrave as low as a 2 point font without compromising the copy integrity. Compared to conventional engraving, Extreme-E technology produces engraved cells via a series of cuts. The advantage to this technology is that the smooth edges of this kind of etching can keep the small copy very legible and clean, versus the normal houndstooth edge of conventional engravings.
Extruded Coating – Coating applied to paper or board using an extruder.
Extrusion – (1) A continuous process where plastic resinous melted using a screw and cylinder combination along with heat and pressure, and forced through a die to obtain a resultant profile shape. (2) Method of coating paper or board with thermoplastic material, can also be used for lamination.
Extrusion coated board – Board that has been covered with a continuous layer of a thermoplastic material, typically polyethylene or polypropylene, by the extrusion coating process i.e. where a thermoplastic material is melted and forced through a narrow slot onto a moving web of board.
Extrusion Lamination – A laminating process in which individual layers of multi-layer packaging materials are laminated to each other by extruding a thin layer of molten synthetic resin (such as polyethylene) between the layers. In film lamination, a fabricated film is adhered to a moving substrate by application of heat and pressure. Film lamination methods include hot roll, belt, flame, calender lamination and sheet extrusion; each type providing a different combination of heat and pressure. The laminated film can add a functional surface to a substrate, or be used between two substrates to stick them together.
Substrates that can be coated with polyolefins include paper, paperboard, biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP), biaxially-oriented nylon (BON), polyester and other plastic films, metal foil, fabrics, glass fiber mat, metal sheet and flexible foams. (source: http://www.dow.com/)
EZO – easy-open (EZO) ends.
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