Updated 06 Nov. 2010
C1S – Describes paper stock that is coated on one side.
C2C – (1) Stands for Coil-to-Can. A can or bottle manufacturing process uses similar techniques as for making (alu) drinks cans, starting with thin aluminium coil, and potentially offers production speeds in the region of 1,000 bottles per minute. (2) see Cradle to Cradle Certification.
C2S – Describes paper stock that is coated on two sides.
CAB – Shortened form of “cabriolet” or carrier; a glass, film, or paper carrier for negatives taped in position. Identical to the term ‘flat” used in offset plate making.
CAD – see Computer Aided Design
CAGR – see Compound Annual Growth Rate
Caking – The collecting of ink particles upon rollers and plates caused primarily by the inability of the vehicle to hold the pigment in suspension. Also known as Piling.
Calander – Paper Industry – (1) A group or stack of rollers between which paperboard is passed under controlled conditions of speed, heat and pressure, in order to give the material thickness, coating or surface finish. (2) A stack of highly polished metal cylinders at the end of a paper machine that compress paper (“iron” it) to smooth and shine the surface (make it glossy). Compare to Supercalandar.
The calander roll covers used in soft and supercalender applications impart certain surface characteristics to the sheet and need to perform under extreme pressures. Nanoparticle covers now reach previously unattainable surfaces and wear-life when applied over steel shells, cotton rolls, on all types of calenders and even a special high-temperature formulation for Janus and Opti-load and embossing rolls. (source:www.xerium.com/stoweWoodwardSA/)
Calander Cut – Slits, glazed lines, or discoloured lines across the paper caused when wrinkles pass through the calander rollers.
Calandered paper – For gloss surfaces the paper is supercalandered. To get supercalandered grades the paper web is passed between alternate hard smooth steel rolls and soft rolls made of compressed fibrous material.
Calander Lamination – Similar to hot roll lamination, uses a heated three-roll stack to heat and activate adhesive films. The adhesive film and substrate, shown below, are drawn into a stack of heated rolls where the film is heated, activated and applied to the substrate. Material selection is critical in providing a strong, long-lasting bond between the film and the substrate.
Calander Scale – Foreign materials not strongly attached and randomly distributed on the surface of the web, appearing as shiny spots. This can cause non-uniform ink absorbency or lead to picking.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) – Chalk. Used in papermaking as a filler or coating pigment. See also Calymer pouches.
Calender – see Calander. Calander and calender are both used and correct. In this dictionary the word ‘calander’ is used throughout the texts.
Calibration – The process of adjusting a device or process to match certain criteria. This is usually done by measuring the device’s deviation from standard values and then, during operation of the device, applying values to compensate the deviation. In prepress, in particular, calibration is the fine-tuning of scanners, monitors, printers, and image-setters in order to increase the accuracy of their output.
Calliper – (1) A dimensional term used interchangeably with the word “thickness” in connection with paperboard. It is expressed in units of thousandths of an inch and is usually written decimally but may be referred to as “points.” (2) The thickness of paper usually expressed in thousandths of an inch in English system of units and in millimetres or microns in Metric system of units. Calliper is sometimes referred to as “mils” or “calliper points.” For example, paperboard that is .014 inches thick may be called “14 calliper,” “14 mils,” or “14 point” board. Uniform calliper is important to nearly all converters. Variations in calliper can cause the board to stretch in winding and result in wavy or bowed edges on a roll. (3) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts. (4) A disc brake pad or braking mechanism involving opposing brake pads that grip a rotating disc.
Callout – (1) A staging sheet prepared to initiate delivery of materials from the warehouse. (2) A visual device for associating annotations with an image, program listing, or similar figure. Each location is identified with a mark, and the annotation is identified with the same mark. This is somewhat analogous to the notion of footnotes in print.
Calls – Seconds, paper with damage or imperfections outside mill tolerances.
Calymer pouches – A lightweight stand-up pouch to aseptic packaging of dairy products that cuts package weight in half. Using a material structure that significantly reduces raw materials. An empty pouch comprises a multilayer polymer film that’s 140 microns (5.5+ mils) thick, and weighs 14 g – about half of most paperboard cartons. The pouch has a sturdy, air-filled handle that enhances the pitcher design and gives the pouch a stiff back that makes it easy to grasp. Produced by Ecolean, the five-layer Calymer pouch structure, from the outside, is a durable PP printing layer, a mineral-filled PP layer that adds stiffness, an ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) oxygen barrier layer, a carbon black layer to protect against light and a PE sealing/food-contact layer. Interestingly, calcium carbonate (chalk) is incorporated in the structure to reduce the amount of polymer needed.
The packaging material is folded, shaped and sealed in proprietary Ecolean machines to produce rollstock of individual, ready-to-fill pouches. The filled pouch is then hermetically sealed and sterilized, and the process is monitored and traceable down to individual packages. The electron-beam (EB) sterilization process is separate from filling and is performed in-house by Ecolean. This ensures that the food contained inside is never exposed to chemicals during manufacturing or filling. The sterile filling process takes only about 2 sec. Ecolean offers the equipment and packaging together, but the Calymer material itself isn’t sold separately.
CAM – See: Computer Aided Manufacturing
Camera-ready Art – Any artwork or type that is ready to be scanned for reproduction purposes.
Camcrisp susceptor –
CAN – Cast nylon film (see Nylon). Used mostly for thermo-formable packaging applications.
Can (aluminium) –
Can (beer) –
Can (beverage) –
Can (expanded) –
Can (food) –
Can (microwaveable) –
Can (paint) –
Can (paperboard) –
Can (polymer coated steel) –
Can (self-refrigerating) –
Can (steel) –
Can (textured) –
Can (two-piece steel) –
Candela (cd) – The unit of luminous intensity. The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source emitting a monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 Hz, the radiant intensity of which in that direction is equal to 1/683 Watt per steradian.
Canister (inside printing) –
Canned food –
Canoe fitment – A ” canoe” style fitment is characterized by having a sealing surface that includes relatively sharp changes in direction around the sealing periphery so as to permit the pieces of material being sealed to the fitment to approach the fitment sealing surface (laterally) at relatively shallow angles . Or, put another way, as two webs separate to go around the fitment in opposite directions, the angle of divergence is relatively small . The canoe shape with its sealable fins assure gradual transition from the two plies of film (one on each side of the fitment) to the maximum width of the canoe in the diametrical centre of the fitment.
Cap (aromatic) –
Cap (crown) – This is a crimped closure. Flutes are pressed into the flaring skirt of a shallow metal disk, which holds an inner disk of resilient lining material that forms the actual seal.
Cap (dispensing) –
Cap (screw) – A cylindrical closure having a continuous thread on the internal surface of the cylinder capable of engaging mating external helical thread on the finish or neck of a container.
Cap (spill-proof) –
Cap (sports) –
Cap (twist) –
Capacity – (1) The amount of space inside a container that holds a given amount of product. (2) The total amount of volume inside the container. The latter is more correctly called the overflow capacity.
Capillary Action – A phenomenon associated with surface tension and contact angle; examples are the rise of liquids in capillary tubes and the action of blotting paper and wicks.
CAPP or CPP – Cast PP film, (see PP). Unlike OPP, it is heat-sealable, at much higher temperatures than LDPE, thus it is used as a heat-seal layer in retortable packaging. It is, however, not as stiff as OPP film.
Capture Efficiency – The fraction of all organic HAP emissions generated by a process that are delivered to a control device, expressed as a percentage.
Capture System – A hood, enclosed room, or other means of collecting organic HAP emissions into a closed-vent system that exhausts to a control device.
Carbonated beverage –
Carbon Black – An intensely black, finely divided pigment obtained by burning natural gas or oil with a restricted air supply.
Carbon Cycle – The natural circulation of carbon which is exchanged among large carbon reserves in the land, the ocean, the biosphere and the atmosphere. It includes the circulation through ecosystems in the course of which carbon atoms from carbon dioxide are incorporated into organic compounds formed by green plants through photosynthesis. (http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environmentgl/default.asp)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) – A colourless, odourless non-poisonous gas, normally part of ambient air; a result of fossil fuel combustion.
Carbon Footprint – A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of green house gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide. It is meant to be a useful metric for individuals and organizations as they conceptualize their personal (or organizational) impact on global warming.
Carbonless Paper – (aka NCR Paper – no carbon required). A paper that uses a chemical reaction between two different contacting coatings to transfer writing or printing through pressure.
Carbon Neutral – Carbon neutral, or carbon neutrality, refers to a net zero carbon release, brought about by balancing the amount of carbon released with the amount sequestered or offset. (http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/dterms.html).
Carbon Offset – A carbon offset is the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by offsetting emissions generated in one location with emissions reductions or displacements in another where it is technically and/or economically more feasible to achieve those reductions. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e). One carbon offset represents the reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. Carbon offsets can be purchased and traded through financial instruments representing greenhouse gas emission reductions.
Carbon Tissue – Light-sensitive material attached to gravure cylinders, used as a resist in the chemical etching process. It consists of layers of gelatine, dye, photosensitive material, and a paper or plastic backing. Exposed to a screen and a continuous-tone image, carbon tissue permits the etching of cells of variable depth according to the degree of exposure in each cell area. Until the advent of electronic engraving, the predominant method of imaging a cylinder.
Carbonyl – A Carbon-Oxygen double bond. A molecular group which can be created via oxidation process. It can also act as a chromophore, and its amount is usually taken as an indication to the advancement of polymer degradation (for example Carbonyl Index).
Carcinogen – A substance known or suspected to cause cancerous growths in living tissues.
Carload – Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45,454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL.
Card – A machine that combs or works fibres between fine surfaces or points to separate, clean and align the fibres.
Cardboard – A popular name of “paperboard”. Technically, cardboard is not a proper term for a packaging material. Using the term when referring to “corrugated” boxes, is most egregious and should be avoided. Also incorrect is the use of the term “cardboard” when referring to “paperboard”. While there are some gray areas, “paperboard” is generally defined as paper in thicknesses over 0.012 inches. Depending on the area of the country (or world) and the industry, you may hear the terms “boxboard”, “folding carton board”, “container board”, “folding box board” or “cardboard”. However, “paperboard” is the correct and over-arching term.
With thanks to Larry Dull, Packaging Knowledge Group
Carded Packaging – Packaging that consists of a stiff paperboard card onto which a product is held by a preformed plastic blister (blister card) or by a film vacuumed onto the product and card (skin or contour packaging). Blister cards are usually covered with a special coating that allows the blister to be heat sealed to the card.
Carding – A process that transforms entangled fibre mats into parallel strands.
Carrier – The backing material for labels. Labels consist of the printable material, the adhesive, and the carrier.
Carrier (beer) –
Carrier Board – A term referring to board, usually Kraft, used for beverage carriers. It is often specially treated to impart water resistance since beverage carriers encounter significant moisture. (See “wet strength”)
Carrier Kote – A consistently high performing paperboard with superior strength properties in environments with high levels of moisture. A smooth printing surface and superior wet tear strength. End use: beverage packaging.
Carton – A unit container made from bending grades of boxboard. It is a shortened term for “folding carton,” the preferred designation for folding boxes, folding paper boxes and folding paperboard boxes. The word carton does not refer to set-up boxes, corrugated or solid fibre shipping containers.
Carton (holographic) –
Carton (retortable) –
Carton blank – An unglued carton, which is glued during the filling process.
Carton board – A rigid wood fibre based packaging material. Cartonboard is normally of at least 180 g/m2 substance and 250 microns thickness. Made from one or more layers of paper to form a rigid or semi-rigid sheet. Board that is used to make folding cartons (i.e., folded boxes).
Carton Dimensions – Dimensions refer to the interior of a carton, measured in millimetres of Length x Width x Height. Length (L) is the longer side of the opening and Width is the shorter. Height (H) is the length between the openings on either end.
CAS – Controlled Atmosphere Storage
Case bind – To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover.
Case ready products –
Cast coated board – Material that has been coated with a special blend of white pigment and plastic binder and then cast against a highly polished surface to produce a high gloss finish. European designations: GG1 (white back cast coated folding boxboard), GG2 (cream back cast coated folding boxboard), GGZ (cast coated solid bleached board).
Cast Coating – Special paper-coating method using a heated, highly polished chrome drum, providing the smoothest and glossiest of all paper finishes.
Cast Film – Plastic film produced from synthetic resins (such as polyethylene) by the cast process. The cast film process involves the extrusion of polymers melted through a slot or flat die to form a thin, molten sheet or film. This film is “pinned” to the surface of a chill roll (typically water-cooled and chrome-plated) by a blast of air from an air knife or vacuum box. The film quenches immediately and then has its edges slit prior to winding.
Because of the fast quench capabilities, a cast film generally has much better optics than a blown film and can be produced at higher line speeds. However, it has the disadvantage of higher scrap due to edge-trim, and very little film orientation in the cross-direction. Cast films are used in a variety of markets and applications, including stretch/cling films, personal care films, bakery films, and high clarity films.
As in blown film, co-extrusion is also a growing process technology, which can provide additional functional, protective, and decorative properties. (source: http://www.dow.com/)
Catalogue (US: Catalog) – A bound booklet of 16 or more pages promoting products or services of one organization.
Catalyst – A substance that makes possible or enhances a chemical reaction, but which is not consumed in the reaction. Catalysts are added in various chemical processes (plating, ink drying) and are engineered, where possible, to be continually reused as other materials are removed and replenished.
Catalytic Coating – Coatings formulated as two-part systems, available in both water- and solvent-reducible formulas. They use reactive resins that cure to form a thermoset film. They have heat and abrasion resistance, high gloss, sol- vent resistance, and adhere to a wide variety of substrates.
Cathode – A negative electrode. In electroplating, the cathode is usually the item to be plated.
Cathode Efficiency – The current efficiency of a specified cathodic process.
Cathode Film – The layer of solution in contact with the cathode that differs in composition from that of the bulk of the solution.
Cathode Polarization – The portion of the electrolyte in the vicinity of the cathode.
Cation – A positively charged ion.
Cat’s whisker – The sharp pointed protrusion from a blister that can arise when using a cross cutting blade and slitter to cut out individual packs on a form-fill-seal machine.
Cavity – The depression in a mould made by casting, machining, hobbing or a combination of the methods.
Cavity wall – A carton or fitment where the sidewalls are constructed so as to form a hollow frame effect.
CCD – (Charged-Coupled Device) A very small light-sensitive photocell that is sensitized by giving it an electrical charge prior to exposure. CCDs have a broad range of uses in graphic arts optical devices.
CCL Containers –
CCM – corrugated case material
CCSBS – clay-coated solid bleached sulphate.
CCSUS – clay-coated solid unbleached sulphate
CD – Cross Direction – The direction perpendicular to the moving forming fabric of the paper machine – the short direction of the paper web. See also Machine Direction and Grain Direction.
Cell – A small etched or engraved depression in a gravure cylinder that carries the ink.
Cell Post – The point at which the cells of four adjacent etched gravure cells meet, forming a common post that braces and adds strength to the walls. The dimensions and configuration of the cell post influence the wear life of the engraving and its ability to carry ink.
Cellosive – A trade name of Union Carbide Corporation for ethylene glycol mono-ethyl ether, a slow drying, active solvent.
Cellulose – (1) The essential structural material of all plants. In its pure state, an amorphous white carbohydrate, insoluble in ordinary organic solvents, made up of 44% carbon, 6% hydrogen, and 50% oxygen, used to make paper. (2) The main fibrous material in paper. Fibre Paperboard’s primary component. A carbohydrate constituent of the walls and skeletons of vegetable cells having the chemical composition of (C6H10O5)n.
Centipoise – A unit of measure of viscosity; 100 centipoises equal one poise. Water has a viscosity of 1 centipoise (CP).
Centre-seal gusseted bag – A centre seal bag is the classic standard among coffee bags.
Centre Spread – The two pages that face each other in the centre of a book or publication.
CEPS – (Colour Electronic Prepress System) A high-end computer-based system that is used to colour correct scanned images and assemble image elements into final pages.
Ceramic – An inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous, i.e., a glass. As most common ceramics are crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the non-crystalline glasses. The earliest ceramics were pottery objects made from clay, either by itself or mixed with other materials. (Read also my article: “Sugar Cane, Bamboo and Ceramics“)
Ceramic Spray Coatings – Coatings are sprayed directly onto the outside of the bottle or jar, resulting in effects that are usually not achievable with ordinary colored glass. The coatings can be of almost any solid color, transparent, frosted or ceramic.
Certified Product Data Sheet (CPDS) – Documentation furnished by suppliers of inks, coatings, varnishes, adhesives, primers, solvents, and other materials or by an outside laboratory that provides the organic HAP content of these materials, by weight, measured using Method 311 of appendix A of this Part 63 or an equivalent or alternative method (or formulation data as provided in § 63.827(b)) and the solids content of these materials, by weight, determined in accordance with § 63.827(c). The purpose of the CPDS is to assist the owner or operator in demonstrating compliance with the emission limitations presented in §§ 63.824-63.825.
C-Flute – Flute thickness of 3.6 mm. Depending upon the stacking strength, puncture resistance, crush strength required for the carton, one of the three commonly corrugations are used in single-wall, general-purpose cartons. A-Flute has excellent stacking strength, B-Flute has good puncture resistance and C-Flute has the optimum combination of both.
CGATS TR011 – Approved in 2002. The report, CGATS TR011 Graphic Technology, Package Development Workflow, Design Concept Through Approved Production File, provides guidelines for producing a packaging project from concept through an approved production file. It establishes tools, recommends roles and responsibilities of participants, provides default specifications for communicating colour issues, and identifies guidelines and standards that can be used to further define required parameters. TR011 can help packaging companies with workflow development.
Chain Dot – (1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone dots touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. (2) Generic term for any midtone dots whose corners touch.
Chain Lines – (1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper. (2) Blemishes on printed images caused by tracking.
Chain Scission – A process of breaking polymeric chains by free radicals. This kind of process may bring about degradation of the polymer.
Chalking – A condition resulting from the improper drying of ink. The vehicle has been absorbed to rapidly into the paper causing the pigment to dust off.
Champagne in can –
Channel – Carbon black produced by impinging a natural gas flame against a metal surface.
Character – A letter, number, punctuation mark, or special graphic used for the production of text.
Character Set – (1) A finite set of different characters that is complete for a given purpose; for example, the character set in ISO Standard 646, “7-bit Coded Character Set of Information Processing Interchange.” (2) A group of characters used for a specific reason; for example, the set of characters a printer can print.
Characterization – The process of creating an ICC profile that describes the unique colour characteristics of colour reproduction devices such as monitors, scanners, colour printers, and four-colour presses.
Chase – A metal frame in which plates are locked for die-cutting and letterpress printing.
Check character (check digit) – A character calculated from the numerical value of the other characters in the code that is used to ensure that the code is correctly processed.
Check Copy – (1) Production copy of a publication verified by the customer as printed, finished and bound correctly. (2) One set of gathered book signatures approved by the customer as ready for binding.
Chemical pulp – Pulp obtained by chemical treatment of de-barked wood to remove non-cellulose material and dissolve the lignin, resulting in separation of fibres without mechanical aids to create longer-fibred pulps. There are two methods: sulphate (more common) and sulphite.
Chemicals recovery – In chemical pulping, the recovery, treatment and regeneration of cooking chemicals.
Chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) – Pulp produced by treating wood chips with chemicals (usually sodium sulphite) and mechanical defibration processes, often partially or fully bleached.
Chevron pouch – A pouch where one end seal is in the shape of a chevron (like sergeants stripe).
Chicken (rotisserie container) –
Child-resistant – A way of sealing a product to prevent a child from opening it, usually in the line of pharmaceuticals or products that would cause children harm. Packages often require a dexterity that comes with age, or a series of opening steps that have to be read on the package.
To be certified as “CR” (child-resistant), a package must pass a test protocol administered by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. The test is designed to show that the package cannot be opened by a small child.
Child-resistant Closures – There are several types that have been developed for products that constitute a hazard to small children. Basic principles of CRC’s are (1) press-and-turn; (2) squeeze-and-turn; (3) push-and-turn; (4) combination-lock and hidden tab.
Child-resistant/senior-friendly packaging – Child-resistant (CR) packaging, a term synonymous with poison-prevention packaging (PPP), can be defined as a container that precludes entry by children under the age of five years but not adults to hazardous substances. Designs for CR packaging can be traced back to 1880, when the first U.S. patent was issued for a CR package. But it wasn’t until 63 CR-packaging patents later, in 1966, that Congress began taking a direct interest in this issue, due to public concern about the large number of children who were killed or seriously injured each year due to their ingestion of dangerous household substances. These harmful products included everything from solvents, chemicals and pesticides to prescription and OTC drugs.
On December 30, 1970, President Nixon signed into law the U.S. Poison-Prevention Packaging Act (PPPA), which was initially placed under the jurisdiction of FDA and later (May, 1973) was regulated by the newly formed U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). The first test procedures, or protocol, for the evaluation of CR packaging were published in 1971. Under the protocol, children and adults are both given packages to open; only those packages that successfully deter small children, but can still be opened by adults, are considered acceptable.
The most typical forms of CR packaging include blister-packs and bottles with CR closures. Closure designs usually incorporate two dissimilar, simultaneous motions in order to activate or open a unit, such as push-and-turn, squeeze-and-turn, pull-and-turn, or turn-and-push. While these opening requirements may successfully thwart youngsters, it was determined after implementation of the PPPA that they also were problematic for older Americans who lacked the strength or dexterity to use the packages properly. Wrote PackagingDigest in July, 1995: “As a result, many either buy non-CR packages or simply leave the closures off the container.”
Therefore, in 1995, CPSC amended the child-resistant packaging protocol, calling for test panels to be comprised of adults aged 50 to 70 instead of 18 to 45, as previously required. Noted the same PackagingDigest article: “CPSC wants packagers to redesign caps so that consumers must rely more on cognitive skills rather than brute-strength opening.” It added that CPSC had cited Procter & Gamble’s Safety Squease squeeze-and-turn cap supplied by West Co. for its Scope mouthwash, introduced in 1994, as an excellent example.
The upshot of PPPA is that thousands of children have been protected from unintentionally ingesting harmful toxic substances. In a test conducted by CPSC in 1992, it determined that between 1964 and 1992, CR packaging had reduced the oral prescription medicine-related death rate by up to 1.4 deaths per million children under the age of five, which equates to about 24 fewer child deaths annually.
China Clay – A natural white mineral pigment used in paper coatings and as an ink extender.
Chipboard – A low quality, non-test paperboard made of waste paper for use where specified strength or quality is not necessary. May be bending or non-bending grades. Also see particleboard
Chlorinated Rubber – A chemical compound of chlorine and rubber latex forming a binder for Type T gravure inks. Commercial trade names are Parlon and Alloprene.
Choke – Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny.
Chroma – The attribute of colour that specifies the amount of saturation or strength in the Munsell colour space model.
Chromatic colour – Colour exhibiting hue, as opposed to achromatic colour.
Chromaticity – Chromaticity Coordinates – Dimensions of a colour stimulus expressed in terms of hue and saturation, or redness-greenness and yellowness-blueness, excluding the luminous intensity. Generally expressed as a point in a plane of constant luminance.
Chromaticity coordinates (CIE) – The ratios of each of the three tri-stimulus values X, Y and Z in relation to the sum of the three, designated as x, y and z respectively. They are sometimes referred to as the tri-chromatic coefficients. When written without subscripts, they are assumed to have been calculated for illuminant C and the 2° (1931) standard observer unless specified otherwise. If they have been obtained for other illuminants or observers, a subscript describing the observer or illuminant should be used. For example, x10 and y10 are chromaticity coordinates for the 10° observer and illuminant C.
Chromaticity diagram (CIE) – A two-dimensional graph of the chromaticity coordinates (x as the abscissa and y as the ordinate), which shows the spectrum locus (chromaticity coordinates of monochromatic light, 380-770nm). It has many useful properties for comparing colours of both luminous and non-luminous materials.
Chrome – A slang term referring to a colour transparency that is used as the original copy. Chrome is not incorrectly used as a short term for Cromalin.
Chromium Trioxide (Chromic Acid) – A chemical compound (“salt”) consisting of one chromium atom bonded to three oxygen atoms, i.e., CrO3. This molecule ionizes in water to form chromium ions carrying a +6 charge. At the cathode, six electrons are supplied to each ion resulting in chromium metal, Cr. Chromium trioxide is a strong oxidizing agent and is toxic. It is commercially known as chromic acid.
Chromophore – A molecule capable of absorbing light, mainly in the visible or UV range.
Chucks – Component of a capping machine which holds the closure for application to the container.
CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) – The International Commission on Illumination, the primary international organization concerned with colour and colour measurement.
CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer – One of the first mathematically defined colour spaces. An ideal observer whose colour matching properties correspond to the CIE colour matching functions for the 2º field size.
CIE 1964 supplementary standard colorimetric observer – An ideal observer whose colour matching properties correspond to the CIE colour matching functions for the 10º field size.
CIE 1976 L*a*b* colour space – A uniform colour space utilizing an Adams-Nickerson cube root formula, adopted by the CIE in 1976 for use in the measurement of small colour differences. Appropriate for use in additive mixing of light (e.g., colour TV).
CIE 94 – The CIE94 tolerancing method utilizes three-dimensional ellipsoids as “containers” for colour acceptance. CIE94 is conceptually similar to CMC2:1 but lacks some of the hue and lightness adjustments. It is expected that CIE94 will evolve over the next few years as additional studies are performed.
CIE L*a*b* – A colour model using lightness (L*) and two colour values (a*&b*). The colour coordinates define where a specific colour lies in a Cartesian graph: the a* value defining a red-green axis and the b* value defining the blue-yellow axis. The L* value adding a third dimension to the colour space.
CIE primaries – The three standard primaries, defined by CIE in 1931 and called X, Y, Z, that can be used to match, with only positive weights, all visible colours. The Y primary is intentionally defined to have a colour-matching function that exactly matches the luminous-efficiency function of the human eye.
CIE standard illuminants – Known spectral data established by the CIE for four different types of light sources. When using tri-stimulus data to describe a colour, the illuminant must also be defined. These standard illuminants are used in place of actual measurements of the light source.
CIE standard observer – A hypothetical observer having the tri-stimulus colour-mixture data recommended in 1931 by the CIE for a 2° viewing angle. A supplementary observer for a larger angle of 10° was adopted in 1964. If not specified, the 2° Standard Observer should be assumed. If the field of view is larger than 4°, the 10° Standard Observer should be used.
CIE Tri-stimulus Values – Amounts of the three components necessary in a three-colour additive mixture required for matching a colour: in the CIE System, they are designated as X, Y, and Z. The illuminant and standard observer colour matching functions used must be designated; if they are not, the assumption is made that the values are for the 1931 CIE 2° Standard Observer and Illuminant C.
CIE Chromaticity Coordinates – x and y values that specify the location of a colour within the CIE chromaticity diagram.
CIE xy Chromaticity Diagram – A two-dimensional graph of the chromaticity coordinates, x as the abscissa and y as the ordinate, which shows the spectrum locus (chromaticity coordinates of monochromatic light, 380-770nm). It has many useful properties for comparing colours of both luminous and non-luminous materials.
CIE XYZ colour space – The cone-shaped space formed by (x, y, z) weights, that when applied to the CIE primaries, match any visible colour.
CIELAB (CIE L*a*b*) colour space – The colour space in which L*, a* and b* are plotted at right angles to one another. Equal distances in the space represent approximately equal colour difference.
Clamshell (eco) –
Clamshell (pvc) –
Clamshell (rice straw) –
Clamshell (microwaveable) –
Clay-Coated Board – A high grade bending boxboard, the top surface of which has been coated with a fine clay that provides an excellent printing surface.
Clay coating – The printing properties of a board can be improved significantly by application of surface coatings to improve whiteness and smoothness and to decrease ink absorbency. The coatings are normally based on dispersions of clays and/or calcium carbonate in a plastic binder such as polyvinyl acetate
Clean Hole – A paper defect caused by restricted drainage on the wire in the paper machine in the absence of any foreign matter or contamination.
Cleaning – The removal of grease or other foreign material from a surface. In electroplating, cleaning implies readying the surface of the metal to be plated to allow acceptable plating to occur.
Clear front standing zipper pouch – As implied by the name, the clear front zipper pouch has a clear PET/LLDPE front. The bottom gusset and the back is a PET/AL/LLDPE laminate. The front can still be custom printed, and a freshness valve can be added.
Climate change – Changes in global weather patterns resulting from the build-up of man-made gases in the atmosphere. The effects include changes in rainfall patterns, rising sea levels, potential droughts, habitat loss and the trapping of the sun’s heat (known as “global warming” or “the greenhouse effect”).
Clipper Can System –
Clipping – The severe transformation of colours that are re-purposed to another device’s colour gamut. These colours lie within the original colour space but outside the destination colour space.
Closure – Means used to close a package where no seal is formed. Example: Repeated folding to construct a tortuous path (ref. ISO 11607 -2003(E)). see also closures.
Closure (flip-top) –
Closure integrity – Condition of the closure that ensures that the closure presents a microbial barrier to at least the same extent as the rest of the packaging (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Closures – Closures are caps or lids used to seal beer and soft drink bottles and food jars and cans. Closures are made from plastic, steel or aluminium and can be screw, twist or pop-up style. Another type of closure is a plastic seal, which is used to reseal a metal can after opening. ‘Closures’ also refers to machinery used to apply the closures to containers after they are filled.
CMC (Carboxymethylcellulose) – A water-soluble cellulose-based polymer used as a thickening agent in foods and detergents
CMC (Colour Measurement Committee of the Society of Dyes and Colourists of Great Britain) – Developed and published in 1988 a more logical, ellipse-based equation based on L*C*h° colour space for computing DE (see delta E*) values as an alternative to the rectangular coordinates of the CIE LAB colour space.
CMM – Colour management module. A set of colour algorithms used to transform colour values. The CMM is the engine that calculates colour values based on predefined colour characteristics in the ICC profiles.
CMS – Colour management system. This is system-level functionality that maps, or translates, the colour space of one device to the colour space of another. ColorSync on the Mac OS and ICM 2.0 on Windows are examples of CMSs.
CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) – The four so-called process colours (technically, they are “subtractive” colours) that are used in four-colour printed reproduction. In desktop publishing it’s one of the colour models; the others being HSB, PMS and RGB.
CNK – See “Coated Natural Kraft”.
CO – Carbon monoxide
CO2 – Carbon dioxide
Coarse Screen – Halftone screen with ruling of 65, 85 or 100 lines per inch (26, 34 or 40 lines centimetre).
Coated board – Board coated typically with a white mixture of materials such as china clay and/or calcium carbonate with binders to produce a smooth and improved surface, particularly for printing and varnishing.
Coated Freesheet – The highest grade of gravure coated paper, containing no groundwood and offering the highest brightness.
Coated Groundwoods – The most widely used grade of paper for gravure-printed magazines, classed as #5 Publication Coated papers.
Coated Natural Kraft (CNK) – MeadWestvaco’s trademarked cartonboard. An unbleached product used in multiply beverage packaging and folding cartons. Customers include MeadWestvaco’s worldwide beverage packaging business and North American and European producers of folding cartons for frozen food, non-perishables, pharmaceuticals and retail items. Marketed under the brand names Carrier Kote for beverage applications and Custom Kote for folding carton uses.
Coated paper – Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.
Coater Backing Roll – Paper Industry – The coater roll applies the coating chemicals to the surface of the sheet for a uniform and consistent coating.
The coater roll cover must have superior marking and crack resistance to withstand wad impact and sheet wraps, while maintaining superior wear resistance to provide long runs and the ability for the paper maker to deckle-in and deckle-out without sanding the cover ends. (source: http://www.xerium.com/stoweWoodwardSA/)
Coating – A substance applied in liquid form to the surface of paper or board to enhance and protect printing or impart special functional properties, as brightness and gloss. Coatings include varnishes, water based, and energy curable coatings such as ultraviolet (UV) or infrared.
Coating colour – Mixture used to coat paper and board: contains pigment, binder, special additives and water. Also coating slip
Coating Operation – The application of a uniform layer of material across the entire width of a substrate.
Coating/Sizing Rolls – Paper Industry – The roll covers in a coater/size operation are there to apply a coating to the sheet or to function as a back-up roll that supports the sheet during the application of the coating or sizing. Coating and sizing applications require a relative soft cover (50 to 120 P&J) with strength and toughness to withstand wad impact. Variokote rubber compound has been the backbone of coater and coater backing roll covers. Supercoat has advanced coater cover durability with increased durability. Now Flexcoat extends the abrasion and impact resistance to new levels that deliver previously unattainable performance and service life. (source: http://www.xerium.com/stoweWoodwardSA/)
Coating station – A workstation on which a coating operation is conducted.
Cobb Test – A method of measuring the water receptivity of paperboard by determining the weight of liquid absorbed into the surface over a specified period of time.
Cobwebbing – A filmy, web-like build-up of dried ink or clear material on the doctor blade, or on the ends of impression rolls.
COC – cyclic olefin copolymer
COC-based blister –
Cockling – Paper that has been dried without restraint so that it looks like a landscape with hills and valleys. This has been caused by uneven shrinkage.
Code 128 – A bar code symbology that encodes the complete 128 ASCII characters set. Characters are made up of bars and spaces in three widths.
Code 39 (3 of 9) – A bar code symbology that encodes 43 data elements (0-9, A-Z and 7 special characters). Each character has 9 elements, bars have two widths.
Coefficient of Friction (COF) – (1) The ratio of tangential force to normal force during slide, that is, the measure of how difficult it is to slide a material of one kind over another. (2) a measurement of “slipperiness” of plastic films and laminates. Measurements are usually done film surface to film surface. Measurements can be done to other surfaces as well, but not recommended, because COF values can be distorted by variations in surface finishes and contamination on test surface.
Co-extrusion – Simultaneous extrusion of two or more different thermoplastic resins into a sandwich-like film with clearly distinguishable individual layers.
COF – Coefficient of friction, a measurement of “slipperiness” of plastic films and laminates. Measurements are usually done film surface to film surface. Measurements can be done to other surfaces as well, but not recommended, because COF values can be distorted by variations in surface finishes and contamination on test surface.
Coffee (self-heating) –
Coffee Valve – A pressure relief valve added to coffee pouches to allow natural unwanted gasses to be vented whilst maintaining the freshness of the coffee. Also called an aroma valve as it allows you to smell the product through the valve.
Cohesion – Attraction that causes the particles of a substance to become united throughout its mass.
Cohesive bands –
Cohesive failure – Failure of a bond within the adhesive itself.
Cold chain – A temperature-controlled supply chain. Hopefully uninterrupted, its a series of storage and distribution activities which maintain a given temperature range. Temperatures depend on the product, but many products like vaccines are ineffective if cold is not maintained. Often the range is 2-8 degrees Celsius.
Cold Colour – In printing and separations, colours which are on the bluish or greenish side. An additive or subtractive solution may be found with a print viewing filter kit if a colour correction is needed.
Cold Seal – (1) A pressure sensitive adhesive coating on plastic films or laminates that will allow the packages to be sealed by application of pressure (with no heat or minimal heat). (2) An adhesive product that can be applied on a gravure press. The adhesive only adheres to itself and is usually printed in a registered pattern. It is most commonly used for frozen confectionary packaging.
Cold selective transfer foils – An increasingly popular alternative to hot stamp foils are cold transfer foils. These come in two types – Cold Selective Transfer Foils and Cold Total Transfer Foils. Act much like hot stamp foil, except that no special stamping equipment is needed. The foil transfers to a selected area by printing glue on to the selected area (versus printing an ink in that space).
Cold Soda Process – A variation of chemical pulping in which pulp is processed at room temperatures.
Cold total transfer foils – Transfer the holographic image to the board or film substrate. It doesn’t apply the film itself, and it is immediately printable. Unlike selective transfer that can be done by a printer, total transfer can be done by both printers and increasingly by more and more laminators. There are also some additional benefits to cold total transfer foils. Because no film is included, there is no film memory issue.
Cold Wrap Bottle –
Collate – The assembly of signatures or sheets in reading sequence for binding.
Collating Marks – Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage.
Colorant – The colour portion of an ink, may be a pigment, dye or combination of the two.
Colorimeter – An optical measurement instrument that responds to colour in a manner similar to the human eye by filtering reflected light into its dominant regions of red, green, and blue.
Colorimetric – Of or relating to values giving the amounts of three coloured lights or receptors – red, green, and blue.
ColorSync – Built-in colour management architecture for Apple Macintosh computers. Third-party vendors utilize the ColorSync framework to provide device calibration, device characterization, and device profile-building methods.
Colour-changing additive –
Colour – The perceived shade or hue of an object, based upon the reflected light. Paper is generally described as white, but most sheets have a slight colourcast, a slight tinge of yellow, red or blue. Paperboard colour is measured during the bleaching process and dyes are added to produce the colours required for certain grades and which are preferred by customers. Colour is measured with three values: L – measures whiteness, ranging from 0 (black) to 100 (white), a – measures redness (+) to greenness (-), b – measures yellowness (+) to blueness (-). For high-end printing demands, the L and b values are currently the most important, with most customers desiring blue-white styling (i.e., a negative b value).
Colour Balance – Maintaining the ratio of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink during printing. This will keep all colour hues consistent and produce a picture with the desired colour, one without an unwanted colour cast or colour bias.
Colour Blanks – Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type. Also called shells.
Colour Blocks – Small square patches of a single colour attached to artwork to indicate colours specified by the artist; or also placed on cylinders to indicate ink colours to be used in the press.
Colour Break – In multicolour printing, the point, line or space at which one ink colour stops and another begins. Also called break for colour.
Colour Cast – An unwanted overall discolouration of an original copy, colour proof or reproduction caused by an overabundance of one colour pigment or light. Colour casts result in bluish red, pinkish blue, etc. reproduction. The colour cast can be digitally altered during or after scanning by using gamma correction.
Colour Concentrate – A measured amount of dye or pigment incorporated into a predetermined amount of plastic. This pigmented or coloured plastic is then mixed into larger quantities of plastic material to be used for moulding. The concentrate is added to the bulk of plastic in measured quantity in order to produce a precise predetermined colour of the finished articles to be moulded.
Colour Control – Measurements taken during the printing operation to insure that the inks match the approved progressive colour proofs or other colour standards for a carton; and to maintain uniformity of ink film thickness and colour value during the production run.
Colour control bar – Strip of small blocks of colour on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain.
Colour correction – The process of adjusting an image to enhance colour reproduction. Adjustment can be done locally or overall. Colour correction can be done through hue change or gradient curve change on an electronic system or through conventional etching.
Colour curves – Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colours. Also called HLS and HVS tables.
Colour difference – The magnitude and character of the difference between two colours under specified conditions.
Coloured Boxboards – Any grade of boxboard coloured during manufacture by the addition of pigments or dyes to the liner pulp in the beaters.
Colour Electronic Prepress System (CEPS)- Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed for image assembly, colour correction, retouching and output onto proofing materials, film or printing plates.
Colourimetry – The science of colour measurement, is widely employed in commerce, industry and the laboratory to express colour in numerical terms and to measure colour differences between specimens. Applications include paints, inks, plastics, textiles and apparel, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, displays, and other parts and products that reflect or transmit colour.
Colour Key – A printer’s proof, actually four sheets of coloured acetate, for examining the quality of process colour separations. This process is normally used when printing on a press capable of fewer than four colours at once. All AA’s and corrections should have been made prior to seeing a colour key.
Colour Management – Matching colours between an original image, scanner, monitor, colour printer and final press sheet.
Colour Matching Functions – The tri-stimulus values of monochromatic stimuli of equal radiant power, in other words: Relative amounts of three additive primaries required to match each wavelength of light. The term is generally used to refer to the CIE standard observer colour-matching functions.
Colour Measurement – Physical measurement of light radiated, transmitted or reflected by a specimen under specified conditions and mathematically transformed into standardized colorimetric terms.
Colour Model – A colour measurement scale or system that numerically specifies the perceived attribute or colour. Used in computer graphics applications and by colour measurement instruments. . See CMYK, PMS and RGB.
Colour Picker – A utility for specifying colours on a computer monitor.
Colour Proof – A representation of what the final printed composition should look like. The resolution and quality of different types of colour proofs can vary greatly.
Colour Resolution – The number of bits that record the colour for one pixel. This is also known as bit depth or colour depth. The higher the colour resolution, the greater range of possible colours in the image, and the larger the file size. Typical colour resolutions are 8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit, although others are possible.
Colour Saturation – Describes the amount of grey in a colour. The more grey, the lower the saturation; the less grey, the higher the saturation.
Colour Separation – Literally separating the areas of a piece to be printed into its component spot and/or process ink colours. Each colour to be printed must have it’s own printing plate.
Colour Sequence – Order in which inks are printed. Also called lay-down sequence and rotation.
Colour Shift – In-process printing, the undesired change in a printed image’s appearance during the run.
Colour Space – The parts of the visible spectrum that can be reproduced in a given medium (i.e., RGB for computer monitors, CMYK for print, web safe index colours for online sites).
Colour Strength – The effective concentration of colouring material per unit of volume.
Colour Temperature – A measurement of the colour of light radiated by an object while it is being heated. This measurement is expressed in terms of absolute scale, or degrees Kelvin. Lower Kelvin temperatures such as 2400°K are red; higher temperatures such as 9300°K are blue. Neutral temperature is grey, at 6504°K.
Colour Transparency – A full-colour positive image on a transparent support and rendered in natural colours, used in the preparation of multicolour printing plates.
Colour Wedge – A tone scale showing graduated tones in primary printing colours, with or without density readings.
Colour Wheel – The visible spectrum’s continuum of colours arranged into a circle, where complementary colours such as red and green are located directly across from each other.
Comb Bind – To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name).
Combing – The part of the carding process when nap is removed and fibres are aligned.
Comets – Intermittent ink deposits in the shape of a comet’s tail. Sometimes referred to as Darts. See also -Soft Streaking.
Commercial beverage – Any beverage available on the market with the exception of tap water.
Commercial Printer – Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.
Comp – Comprehensive artwork used to present the general colour and layout of a page.
Compass – An online software application, developed by the Sustainable Packaging Coalition that allows packaging professionals to compare the environmental impacts of their package designs. The software compares packages based on resource consumption, emissions and attributes such as material health, recycled or virgin content, sourcing and solid waste. Compass uses a life-cycle approach to compare packages capturing inputs (the resources we use to produce something) and outputs (generally emissions to air, water and soil from the production process) across a product’s entire life cycle. This approach highlights the inter-linked nature of the global supply chain. (www.design-compass.org),
Compatibility – A property which describes the affinity of a polymeric material and an additive. The amount of compatibility is generally linked to the similarity of the physio-chemical properties of the polymer and additive. In case there is no compatibility, the additive will tend to migrate to the surface of the product.
CompelAroma Technology –
ComPetCap CC 28/21-01 – Alternative to the PCO 1881 design. The German company CCT (Creative Closure Technology GmbH) designed the ComPetCap CC 28/21-01 especially for carbonated beverage packaging. This is a neck and closure version, also called “PCO 1881 med”, which ideally combines the material-saving new neck and closure version PCO 1881 with the old neck and closure version PCO 28 (1810) being used by the market for decades. The closure is 21 mm tall and only weighs 3.9 g, resulting in a saving of at least 1.5 g for pre-form and closure in comparison with the neck and closure version PCO 28 (1810). As the ComPetCap doesn’t require reconstruction costs on moulding, filling and capping, it makes it the lightweight alternative for owners of older bottling plants, as they can often only convert from PCO 1810 to PCO 1880 at high cost. (Read also my article: “Short, Shorter, the Shortest“)
Complementary Colours – Colours that can be additively mixed to produce as achromatic colour.
Complementary Wavelength – The wavelength of the monochromatic stimulus that, when additively mixed with the colour stimulus considered, matches the specified achromatic stimulus.
Complements – Two colours that create neutral grey when combined. On a colour wheel, complements are directly opposite from each other
Complex Ion – An ion composed of two or more ions or radicals, both of which are capable of independent existence, for example cuprocyanide Cu(CN)-3.
Complexing Agent – A compound that will combine with metallic ions to form complex ions. See also – Complex Ions.
Compliance qualification – Documented evidence that packaging meets the requirements for packaging for terminally sterilized medical devices based on testing for conformity to an agreed material specification (ref. ISO 11607 – 2003(E)).
Composipac Z-flute –
Composite can/Paperboard can – (1) The composite or paperboard package is a container comprised of a body with two ends made from a variety of materials. The package can be produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. The container body is made from paper, various liner materials to achieve barrier requirements and a printed label for package graphics. (2) Cans made from paperboard (cardboard). A variety of barrier materials and fittings enable composite cans to be used for packaging food, powdered beverages, wine, spirits and perfume.
Composite closure – A two-piece cap comprised of a central metal disk and plastic outer ring.
Composite Image – A photograph or other graphic image that is made of a combination of multiple images.
Composition – (1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page.
Compostable sugar-based polymer – Researchers at Imperial College London, UK, have modified sugar derivatives by a series of chemical transformations to create a potentially domestically degradable polymer that does not rely on food crops and is less energy intensive to manufacture, offering a significant advance on polylactic acid (PLA). Polylactic acid is produced by fermenting lactic acid from corn starch. The new chemical process is potentially useful because the yields of the transformations are high. The modified sugars can also be copolymerised with lactide to produce a modified PLA which degrades more rapidly.
The polymer is made from broken down lignocellulosic biomass generated from non-food crops such as trees, grass and agricultural waste, which could give the polymer superior environmental benefits. The temperature required to prepare the material is ‘reasonable’, while water is not used to prepare the polymer, lowering energy use. Although it is needed to degrade the biomass.
Compostability – Composting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. The term compostable verifies that a material or mix of materials can be decomposed in a composting system within one composting cycle. Products claiming to be compostable, should meet ASTM Intl. specifications D6400 (for Compostable Plastics) or D6868 (for Compostable Packaging). Products that meet the requirements in these two specifications will disintegrate rapidly in a professionally managed compost facility, will biodegrade quickly under the composting conditions, will not reduce the value or utility of the finished compost by leaving plastic fragments and will result in humus that supports plant life.
Compostable – The term compostable verifies that a material or mix of materials can be decomposed in a composting system within one composting cycle. ASTM Method 6400/6868. Composting – The controlled biological decomposition of organic material in the presence of air to form a humus-like material. Controlled methods of composting include mechanical mixing and aerating, ventilating the materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers, or placing the compost in piles out in the open air and mixing it or turning it periodically. (http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/dterms.html)
Compound – A wax, grease or other material intended to be added to an ink to improve laying, prevent offset, sticking and picking, and to shorten or reduce an ink.
Compounding and Blending – Typically the addition of two or more polymers, materials or ingredients into a polymer is considered compounding or blending. This process changes the personality of a given polymer and differentiates various resins or the end-use products for which they are used.
Either measured by improvements in processability or an end-use performance property, or by overall economics of the polymers used for a given application, leading plastic fabricators and converters know enhancing the performance of existing materials can easily be achieved by compounding.
Compounds could include alloys and blends; polymer modifiers and fillers; base resins; pigment master batches for coloration; flame retardants; blowing agents; other various additives; and purge compounds for enhancing the compounding process. (source: http://www.dow.com/)
Comprehensive Dummy – Simulation of a printed piece complete with type, graphics and colours. Also called colour comprehensive and comp.
Compressibility – The behaviour of paper under pressure, such as that applied by the gravure impression roller. A function of basis weight and calliper. No separate test for compressibility exists, but it is evaluated during tests for smoothness.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) – The use of a computer drafting software to design folding cartons. The CAD program also provides information for layout and manufacture of the dies that will be used to cut and crease the cartons (Computer Aided Manufacturing or CAM).
Computer-To-Plate (CTP) – The use of an entirely digital workflow to design and transfer copy to the printing plate output device (plate setter) without the use of films.
Concealed seal gusseted bag – An increasing popular option where the seal is at the centre of the back, where it is concealed and forms a smooth integrated part of the bag itself.
Concentrate – A pelletized plastic material containing highly loaded pigments which is used in a polymer system to change the final colour and/or properties of a plastic part.
Condensed Type – A narrow, elongated typeface.
Conditioning – The process whereby materials are brought into equilibrium with their surroundings at a particular temperature and relative humidity. Also called curing, maturing and seasoning.
Conductance – The capacity of a medium, usually expressed in ohms, for transmitting electric current.
Conductivity – Paper’s capacity to conduct electricity
Conductivity-Specific Conductance – The current transferred across unit area per potential gradient. In the metric system, K = amperes per square centimetre divided by volts per centimetre. The reciprocal of Resistivity.
Cones – Photoreceptors in the retina that contain light-sensitive pigments capable of initiating the process of photopic vision.
Congreve stamping – In 1820 Bryan Donkin, an English engineer and industrialist, worked with Sir William Congreve on preventing the forgery of excise stamps, using a method of two-colour printing with compound printing plates. Working with his partner John Wilks, he produced a machine which was used by the Excise and Stamp Office and also by the East India Company at Calcutta.
Congreve described his invention as follows: “My said invention is described in manner following (that is to say): it consists of a mode of stamping paper, vellum, leather, or other suitable substance, so as in one single impression to unite with the embossed work usually given in stamping, the most beautiful and delicate printed figures, either in one or more coloured inks, or in silver or gold. This mode of stamping is either applicable to the protection of the revenue, or generally to increase the security of any document against forgery …..”
Consistency – (1) Refers to the body characteristics of an ink. (2) Dry solids content (%) of pulp present in a pulp slurry.
Constant Gloss Test – A paper test for gloss used on matte or uncoated papers, used to determine if undesirable reflections will hamper readability of the printed sheet under normal viewing conditions.
Consumer packaging – End consumer packaging as opposed to packaging used for distribution (cardboard boxes, expanded polystyrene, etc.).
Contact Angle – Actual wiping angle of blade on cylinder. Resultant of forces at work in the particular application.
Contact Area – Area of blade in actual contact with print cylinder when wiping.
Contact Positive – A positive made from a negative by exposure to light in a contact frame, either continuous tone or screened.
Containerboard – (1) Solid fibre or corrugated and combined board used in the manufacture of shipping containers and related products. (2) The component materials used in fabrication of corrugated board and solid fibre combined board. (3) A general term applied to both solid fibreboard and corrugated fibreboard which are used in the manufacture of shipping containers. Containerboard grades include medium and linerboard.
Contaminants – Any unacceptable or unintended trace materials.
Continuous Thread (CT) – A continuous spiral projecting plastic or glass ridge on the finish of a container intended to mesh with the thread of a screw-type closure.
Continuous Tone – Term used to describe any camera or scanner input material that has varying tones of grey formed by the grain pattern of a photographic emulsion, made without the use of screens or dots. All traditional photographs (prints and transparencies) are continuous-tone materials.
Contour Packaging – (a.k.a. skin packaging) The overwrapping or covering of an irregular-shaped object with a flexible film applied in connection with a paperboard base. The air surrounding the product is exhausted, thus causing the film to fit or cling closely to all parts of the packaged item.
Contrast – The tonal gradation between highlights, middle tones, and shadows in an original or a reproduction. This is the visual relationship of the original to the reproduction when comparing white to black ranges.
Contrast Range – The amount of variance between highlights and shadows in an original or halftone, quantified as the difference between the top highlight and deepest shadow density readings as measured by a densitometer.
Controlled Atmosphere – A term which defines the ability to control the chemical (gaseous) composition of an enclosed volume of air. Mainly used in connection with packaging, but is also applicable for greenhouses and other agricultural constructions.
Controlled Interactive Packaging – A CSP technology in material science that creates microscopic interconnected transmitting pathways within a polymer. These solid pathways allow the controlled transport of a wide variety of small molecules, thus enabling a myriad of applications for absorbing and releasing chemically active substances. The results are custom designed plastic materials that respond to external stimuli in a reliable, pre-programmed fashion, creating the desired, controlled, packaged environment; or, a new or improved product.
The composition is composed of at least three components: (A) a polymer (e.g. thermoplastic or thermoset) that makes up the majority of the composition; (B) a minor polymer (e.g. a hydrophilic or hydrophobic material) that is immiscible in the majority polymer; and, (C) a particle (e.g. active agent) that resides in minor polymer.
The technology can engineer a container, package, or plastic component, maintain a specific relative humidity, absorb gases, vapours, or odours; and/or release active substances such as gases and aromas, nutrients, or other ingredients in such a controlled manner, while offering 100% utilization of all active particles. More than one interactive function can be incorporated into a polymer blend.
These interconnecting pathways permit gases or vapours to be absorbed into or released from the particles located with the polymer blend. The advantage of this technology is that the composition can be “engineered” to meet the needs of the end-use application.
These new materials can be processed into film, blow moulded into bottles, or injection moulded into any shape.
CSP products are custom engineered with formulations developed to provide solutions to specific product challenges. Some standard products are available. Controlled Interactive Packaging works with any thermoplastic or thermoset material.
CSP’s proprietary technology relates to a polymer blend having a co-continuous interconnecting morphology. (source: CSP Technologies)
Control Limits – The amount of acceptable variation in press capabilities over the course of a press run.
Conventional Hard Size Press Roll – Paper Industry – Size press rolls in pond size presses operate in pairs, one hard and one soft, to provide the proper pressure for efficient application of the sizing to the sheet and to reduce sheet stealing. The hard size press cover must maintain its hardness and crown profile up through 250ºF to provide a consistent nip intensity and to prevent non-uniform abrading of the soft cover. It must also maintain the proper surface finish for optimum sheet transfer/release and to prevent film splitting. (source: http://www.xerium.com/stoweWoodwardSA/)
Conventional Soft Size Press Roll – Paper Industry – Size press rolls in pond size presses operate in pairs, one hard and one soft, to provide the proper pressure for efficient application of the sizing to the sheet. The soft size press cover must have excellent abrasion and chemical resistance, and temperature and hardness stability to ensure optimum sizing and long runs between regrinds, while maintaining a suitable surface to uniformly release the sheet and prevent film splitting. (source: http://www.xerium.com/stoweWoodwardSA/)
Conversion – The process of creating a 3-D item from a flat sheet of paper, such as envelope conversion or box conversion.
Converting – The processing of a web material from one form to another. Converting processes include calandering, coating, die cutting, embossing, laminating, printing, punching, sheeting, slitting, treating, winding and unwinding.
Converter – A manufacturer who fabricates folding cartons from boxboard and other packaging materials. In general can refer to any manufacturer who fabricates packaging materials from various unfinished, raw materials.
Cook-in bag –
Cook-In-Box – An SBS paperboard container developed in 1986 by International Paper and used by Patterson Foods, Patterson, CA, for frozen vegetables. The carton was coated both-sides with PE, which provided a good heat-seal during cartooning and prevented moisture from leaking out into the oven. Frozen foods were among the first to be packed in dual-ovenable containers, including coated paperboard cartons for microwavable potatoes from Marsh Supermarkets and Stouffer’s Lean Cuisine.
Cooking – A process for producing chemical pulp by treating wood with a cooking liquor at a certain temperature and pressure.
Cooking liquor – Liquor made up of selected chemicals and used for cooking pulp.
COP – see Cyclic Olefin Polymer.
Copper Cyanide – Source of copper ions in an alkaline cyanide electrolyte. Copper cyanide is a toxic substance.
Copper Plating – The process of applying a coating of copper to a base cylinder by electrolytic means.
Copper Sulphate – CuSO4• 5H20. Source of copper ions in an acid copper-plating bath. Toxic by ingestion.
Copy – All furnished material or disc used in the production of a printed product.
Copy Viewer – Any device for viewing copy, such as an overhead light from viewing reflective copy, or a light box for viewing transparencies.
Core – (1) The portion of an injection mould that forms the interior of the product. (2) A hollow tube or spool, often of fibre, plastic, or metal, upon which a roll is wound. Most cores are 3-inches ID except for the jumbo rolls that require 6-inch ID. Spirally wound paper cores are used throughout a range of industries and applications. Made to order, custom paper cores are crush resistant and produced to exact specifications, maintaining tight tolerances for precision use. Paper cores are commonly used as tape cores, label cores, film cores, foam cores, and fabric cores by manufacturers and converters. The most economical paper cores are plain kraft.
Core Rod – That portion of injection blow mould that forms the interior of the parison and transfers the parison to the blow station. It is the source for air in the blow cycle.
Cork closure (wine) –
Cork finish – The bottle opening (finish) that is sealed with a cork.
Corona surface treatment – See: Corona Treatment
Corona Treatment – An electrostatic treatment that reduces the surface tension of a substrate (e.g., a poly-coated substrate) to ensure adhesion of ink and glue. The Corona treatment involves high voltage, high frequency electricity discharged from an electrode when it pours through the poly-coated board increases the surface energy of the board to better receive inks or glue.
Corrosion-protection material –
Corrugated Board – A structure made from containerboard grades of paperboard. Corrugated board consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper stuck between flat sheets of paper or board such as: (1) Single face corrugated: one sheet of fluted paper stuck to one flat sheet of paper or board. (2) Double face corrugated board: made up of one sheet of fluted material stuck between two sheets of paper or board.
Corrugated Box Plant – An operation that has both corrugating capability and converting equipment. Most corrugated boxes throughout the world are produced in integrated box plants.
Corrugated carrier carton (beer) –
Corrugated Container – A container made with linerboard and corrugated medium. May also be referred to as a corrugated box or corrugated carton.
Corrugated Fibreboard – This material refers to the composite structure formed by gluing one or more sheets of fluted, corrugated material to one or more flat facings of linerboard.
Corrugating medium – Medium is a single-ply paper that serves as the fluted portion sandwiched between the inner and outer layers of corrugated packaging and displays.
Corrugation Marks – A paper defect having the appearance of “rope” or “chain” marks parallel to the direction of web travel, caused by adjacent hard and soft spots.
Co-stabilizers – A group of additives which augment the protective abilities of other stabilizers (for example: acid scavengers).
Couch Roll – Paper Industry – The couch roll dewaters the sheet as it is carried by the fabric to increase the sheet consistency to the level required for pick-up by the felt. Suction couch rolls are typically supplied with large countersunk holes to maximize open area and are covered with highly abrasion resistant rubber or composite materials to minimize cover wear. (source: http://www.xerium.com/stoweWoodwardSA/)
Coulomb – A current of one ampere flowing for one second (one amp-second).
Count – The actual quantity of sheets of a given size, weight and calliper required to make a bundle of 50 pounds.
Cover Paper – A heavy printing paper used to cover books, make presentation folders, etc.
Coverage – Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Covering Power – The ability of a plating solution under a specified set of plating conditions to deposit metal on the surfaces of recesses. (To be distinguished from throwing power).
CPG companies – Consumer Packaged Goods Manufacturers
Cradle-to-Cradle – A system by which materials are maintained in closed loops to maximize material value without damaging ecosystems. Cradle-to-cradle protocols minimize waste through recycling and reuse, rather than disposal. Cradle to Cradle Certification or C2C is a program created by McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC). MBDC was started in 1995 by William McDonough and Dr. Michael Braungart to create the “Next Industrial Revolution” through the introduction of a new design paradigm called Cradle to Cradle Design, and the implementation of eco-effective design principles. (http://www.c2ccertified.com/)
Cradle-to-Grave – A system for controlling hazardous waste from the time it is generated until its ultimate disposal, in effect, from “cradle to grave”. (http://www.epa.gov/osw/laws-reg.htm)
Crash-bottom carton – A carton where the base panel locks in place when the body is squared up.
Crash-lock base – A carton where the base locks in place automatically when pressed from opposite corners.
Creasing – (1) The production of the score or folding line in a sheet of boxboard made by pressing the board with a steel rule into a counter or female pattern on the metal surface of a platen or cylinder jacket of a cutting and creasing press. (2) The folding of a sheet material without the appearance in the zone of folding cracks, sharp lines of bending failure, splitting away of surface coating, or other unsightly manifestations of fractures. This should be carefully distinguished from brittleness, as the latter involves a small degree of bending.
Creep – Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
CREF (Computer Ready Electronic Files) – Designed by a number of printers and separators to draft a flexible set of standards or guidelines for preparing desktop publishing files for successful output to film. See also – Mechanical.
Crepe paper – Paper with high elasticity produced by creping.
Creping – Crinkling of paper during drying to produce a soft, elastic sheet.
Crescendo – Coated one-side-bleached sulphate (SBS) board, available in a 190-330 grammage range. Combines a smooth, strong surface with bright white styling. Further information at Crescendo Paper.
Crimp – Waviness or kink in a fibre.
Crimpless System –
Cromalin – A colour-proofing system created by DuPont. All AA’s and corrections should have been made prior to seeing a Cromalin.
Crop – In order to eliminate portions of the copy, photograph or artwork, crop marks are placed on the original or overlay to indicate which portions are to be eliminated. Careful cropping can save money in the final separation stage because colour separations are billed for their final reproduction size on film, not just the portion being used at the printing stage.
Crop Mark – A line printed outside the finished size of a piece that shows where the piece is to be cut to size.
Cross-Deckle Misregister – Misregister caused by shrinking of a web between printing units.
Crosshairs – A single or series of engraved cells in the shape of a cross, engraved on an image carrier. Used to visually check register, predominately for skew.
Cross-linking – A process of bonding polymeric chains. This kind of process has the effect of producing gel in a thermoplastic polymer or converting it into a thermo set polymer.
Crossover – Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
Crown Cap – This is a crimped closure. Flutes are pressed into the flaring skirt of a shallow metal disk, which holds an inner disk of resilient lining material that forms the actual seal.
Crown Holdings –
Crown Peel Seam –
Crown Roll Leaf –
Crystallization – A condition in which a dried ink film repels a second ink that must be printed on top of it.
CSD – Carbonated Soft Drinks (also known as sodas in the USA).
CSR – Customer Service Representative. Employee of a printer, service bureau, separator or other business who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed.
CT – (1) Continuous Tone. A file format used for exchanging high-level scan information. (2) Continuous Thread. A continuous spiral projecting plastic or glass ridge on the finish of a container intended to mesh with the thread of a screw type closure.
C-T closure – A continuous-thread design that begins near the bottom of the closure skirt and continues upward towards the liner. Closure size designation determines the number of turns.
C-T finish – A continuous-thread finish that features an uninterrupted protruding helix on the neck of a container to accommodate a screw-type closure.
CTMP – Chemimechanical pulp produced by treating wood chips with chemicals (usually sodium sulphite) before mechanical defibration.
CTP – see: Computer-To-Plate, also known as DTP or direct-to-plate. CTP is a total digital workflow from the point of design to proofing to printing plate output.
Cullet – Trade name for colour-graded glass fragments, off-cuts etc suitable for remelting, sourced mainly from glassworks and bottle banks.
Cup (degradable) –
Cup (paperboard) –
Cure or Curing – (1) Conversion by chemical reaction of a wet coating or printing ink film to a solid film. (2) Also refers to the addition of a catalyst.
Curl – Tendency of paper by itself to bend or partly wrap around the axis of one of its directions. Curl can be mechanically induced (roll set curl) or result from absorption of moisture due to differences in structure or coatings from one side or direction (MD or CD) to the other.
Current Density – Current per unit area. (1) Average total current divided by the total area of the electrode in solution. (2) The value of the current density at a given point on the electrode.
Current Efficiency – The ratio of liberated to theoretical mass: in an electrolytic process, the mass of the substance liberated by a current divided by the theoretical mass, as predicted by Faraday’s law.
Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) – Regulations issued by the FDA as minimum requirements. Most countries have their own, and they require quality systems of design, manufacture, packaging, labelling, storage, installation, and servicing of medical devices. Going beyond samples, the entire system is expected to be up to par, and documentation facilitates this.
Custom Kote – A consistently high performing paperboard with a smooth, glossy surface coupled with outstanding strength characteristics to ensure packaging integrity of folding cartons and other package solutions.
Cut – (1) The term properly applies to wood engravings and other surfaces manually engraved. It is frequently used inappropriately to mean photoengraving. (2) To pierce or shear completely through a sheet of paperboard; i.e., to cut carton blanks from a sheet of paperboard. (3) To dilute an ink, lacquer or varnish with solvents or with clear base; to thin.
Cut and Crease – An alternative to a crease score wherein the fold line is made up of a series of alternating cuts and creases.
Cut and transfer-process –
Cutoff – A specified length of converted material, usually relating to a gravure cylinder repeat length.
Cut Score – Piercing partially through a sheet of paperboard. (See Plate 0.407 – Cut Scoring and Reverse Cut Scoring)
Cutting – A cut separates the board into two pieces (while a score is a continuous crease or series of perforations which allow the board to be bent without tearing or cracking). Cutting and scoring can be done at the same time with the same die in-line on a web or off-line in a web or sheets.
Cutting and Creasing – Die Steel rule forms used on cutting and creasing presses to cut and score sheets of boxboard into folding carton blanks.
Cutting Die – Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
Cutting Machine – A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing.
CWT – A unit of weight measurement created by U.S. merchants in the late 1800s. A hundred weight is equal to exactly 100 pounds. C is the Roman numeral for the number 100 and WT is the abbreviation for weight, i.e., 100 lbs.
Cyan – A shade of blue used for process colour printing.
Cyanide – A cyanide is any chemical compound that contains the cyano group -C≡N, with the carbon atom triple-bonded to the nitrogen atom. The CN group can be found in many kinds of compounds. Some are gases, others are solids or liquids. Some are salt-like, some covalent. Some are molecular, some ionic, and many are polymeric. Those that can release the cyanide ion CN− are highly toxic. The anion CN, widely used in electroplating processes. It must be used in alkali form (pH greater than 7) to prevent formation of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN), which is extremely toxic.
Cycle – The complete, repeating sequence of operations in a process. In moulding, the cycle time is the period, or elapsed time, between a certain point in one cycle and the same point in the next.
Cyclic Olefin Polymer (COP) – In parallel to glass, use of the glass-clear plastic Cyclic Olefin Polymer (COP) presents interesting new possibilities, especially in demanding areas of biopharmaceutics and cytostatics. Compared with most other relevant plastic types, COP with its inert surface displays a substantially lower tendency to attract proteins for example. The heavy-metal-free plastic has high thermal and mechanical resistance. The properties of the material as an oxygen barrier are among the best in the plastic spectrum.
Cylinder – Rollers in the printing press upon which the rubber plates are mounted and which receive the impressions.
Cylinder Board – Boxboard made on a papermaking machine characterized by the use of a series of cylinders or moulds, each laying down a single layer (or ply) of fibre, which permits wide variation in the thickness or weight of the finished board as well as a variation in the furnish used in the different layers, or plies, of the sheet. There is a grain in the direction in which the web travels.
Cylinder Machine – A paperboard making machine consisting of wire cylinders revolving in vats containing furnish of different types. Each cylinder deposits a layer of furnish on the moving web or blanket to form separate layers, the fibres of which are combined under pressure into a single sheet as the water is squeezed out.
Cylinder vat machine – An old method of boardmaking where fibres are deposited on a wire mesh rotating in diluted pulp to form one ply. Each machine would have several vats.
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